ELIZABETH  (YOUNG) YOUNG (1827-1897): The Y - Chromosome is inherited only by males
(from their biological fathers).  Therefore studies of this nature are in essence exploring the
paternal lineage only.  In order to study a maternal lineage, it is necessary to turn to can only
be passed to the next generation by the daughters.  This type of DNA provides an indication
of the deep (anthropological) ancestry of a person in the female line (mother, maternal
grandmother and so on back to the "Mitochondrial Eve" who resided in East Africa (from
their biological fathers).  Therefore studies of this nature are in essence exploring the about
140,000 years ago).  There are 7 "Daughter's of Eve"  who are the ancestors of virtually
everyone of maternal European descent.  While it is commonly known that the Y - virtually
everyone of maternal European descent.  While it is commonly known that the Y -
Chromosome is one of the 46 chromosomes found in the nucleus of most cells in the body,
Chromosome is one of the 46 chromosomes found in the nucleus of most cells in the body,
mitochondrial DNA is entirely different.  Mitochondria are cell inclusions, about 1000 per
cell, whose role is as mini energy packets that helps to power the sundry functions of the
cell.  There are thousands or these bacteria - like organelles in each cell (again, each one
coming from the mother).  However, it is also possible to use this form of DNA testing to
determine the maternal ancestry of some of the early Youngs.

The data comes in the form of a signature from the  region of the mitochondria - basically a
list of mutations known as HVR (hypervariable region) 1 and 2 in the "control region".  In
addition "deeper" mutations in the other regions, the coding regions, of the circular DNA
sequence can be detected and categorized on a phylogenetic tree

If the goal is to obtain the "signature" of the mtDNA of the sons of Adam YOUNG, we would
need to find an individual in the direct female to female line back to Adam's wife Catharine
Elizabeth SCHREMLING.  While this couple did have a daughter Elizabeth who married
Joseph HOUSE the descendants of this couple are largely unknown in the male or female
lines.  This is a serious problem in doing mtDNA research - finding a suitable candidate to
test.  Since the surname of females change with marriage, the genealogical challenges can be
prodigious.  It appears that a more limited success has been achieved with the mtDNA

The wife of Henry YOUNG (1825-1901) was his first cousin, the above Elizabeth YOUNG.  
Genealogical reserach has shown that her mother was Mary TERRYBERRY (born in New
Jersey), whose mother was Hannah YOUNG, whose mother was Sophia YOUNG (neither
were related to the Youngs of the Grand River) who were also born in New Jersey.  Sophia's
mother was Anna - surname unknown.

To assess the mitochondrial DNA of all these women, two individuals who are descendants in
the direct female line were recruited for testing.  One is a descendant of Elizabeth YOUNG's
daughter's daughter's son (Robet Nelson), as well as his grand-nephew (Gerry Kenney) were
found to have
Haplotype J*, now known as J1c.

Microscopic view of a single mitochondrion, of which
there are thousands in each cell of the body (e.g., the skin
cells obtained by mouth swab for DNA analysis) - each one
coming from the mother, who inherited it from her mother
and so on back to the "Mitochondrial Eve"
rare, and the specific haplotype (series of mutations away from the arbitrary Cambridge
Reference Standard) even more so.  The HVR1 (Hyper Variable Region 1) mutations are
16069T - 16126C - 16224C.  The HVR2 mutations are 00073G, 00185A, 00228A, 00263G, 00295T,
00315.1C, 00462T, and 00489C

While the 69 and 126 numbers are the defining part of haplogroup J, the 224 mutation is what
gives this "signature" its power to link up with both recent kin, and with ancient ancestors
(since the mutation rate of the mtDNA markers is much slower that what is seen with the Y -
Chromosome).  Haplogroup J is relatively common in the Middle East and Northern Africa
(e.g., 66% in Bedouins from the latter region) and, although widely dispersed, quite rare in
much of Europe (e.g., 7% in Germany where, presumably, the ancestors of Elizabeth Young
originated).  Considering the basic J haplotype (69 + 126), it is interesting to note that the J
with a 224 mutation has only been observed to date in the
Caucasus (e.g., Cossacks,
Georgians, Azerbaijanis, and Armenians).

Clearly Elizabeth Young had a rare and somewhat exotic mitochondrial DNA profile.  A
search of the largest public mtDNA database is found at  In exploring
this database it is observed that in addition to 2H5NR and E47ZU (RN and GK
respectively), there are two other exact matches to their (above) profile.

The reason why the test was performed in the first place was that there is clear evidence that
the eldest child in the family of Henry YOUNG and Elizabeth YOUNG, Celestia Jane
(YOUNG) HINES (1849 - 1937) was a half sibling to the rest of the children of Henry
YOUNG (1825 - 1901) and Elizabeth YOUNG (1827 - 1897).  It is hypothesized that she is
the daughter of Elizabeth but not Henry.  Therefore, it was anticipated that at some point a
descendant in the female line from Elizabeth's daughter Hannah Adelia (YOUNG) DAWSON
via the latter's daughter Clarissa (DAWSON) STOWE would need to be located and tested.  
If this individual turned out to have the above sequence of numbers, then at least we would
know that
Celestia is not the biological daughter of Henry, but of his wife (and first cousin)
Elizabeth, the daughter of George YOUNG and Mary TERRYBERRY - the daughter of Ann
(YOUNG) TERRYBERRY, daughter of Sophia (YOUNG) YOUNG, daughter of Anna who was the
wife of Peter YOUNG
.  The surname YOUNG is, seemingly by chance, found at a very high
frequency in this family.

As luck would have it this search for a suitable candidate to test was unecessary.  One of the
two Mitosearch ( database matches (8AEW6) traces his maternal
lineage to Sophia (YOUNG) YOUNG's sister Elizabeth (YOUNG) HUFFMAN, both
daughters of Anna (surname unknown), the wife of Peter YOUNG of New Jersey.

Thus we now know the mtDNA signature of Elizabeth YOUNG (1827-1897) and her children;
and this finding shows that
Celestia and the other children such as Hannah Adelia (where the
genealogical evidence is incontrovertable) have the same mother, the above Elizabeth
.   A search is
now underway, using autosomal DNA and the 23andMe database, to locate the biological
father of Celestia - half sister to the younger children in the family.