ADAM YOUNG (1717 - 1790)
Background:  Over the past 5 years there have been tremendous advances in the field of
genetic genealogy.  There are now many commercial labs which will analyze a sample of DNA
from a cheek swab in order to ascertain the "signature" or pattern of scores of the
participant.  When it comes to the Y-Chromosome, it is inherited in the male line back to
Adam (i.e., and Eve) who apparently resided in Africa some 100,000 years ago.  The
Y-chromosome is inherited intact from father to son, however on very rare occasions there
mutations in the "junk DNA" (no known purpose) part of the Y-Chromosome known as
SNPs (
single nucleotide polymorphisms) where a base pair at a single location may change
from say a C (Cytosine) to a G (Guanine).  Events like this happen only once in thousands
of years and this pattern is then passed on to all the sons of that man.  In this way, all males
whose paternal ancestry can be traced to Europe will be able to be classified into one of
about 16 haplogroups (descendants of these men where a mutation occurred).  For example
the R1b
haplogroup is the most common in all Europe.  Its frequency decreases in a cline
from west (e.g., Ireland where in some counties all males are R1b) to east (so that it
becomes rare east of Poland).  Each R1b male is a descendant of "the patriarch" who lived
about 15,000 years ago, probably in the Basque country of Spain and France, and his
descendants have since then spread across all of Europe - but remaining most frequent in
the area where he originated (other male lineages having died out).  In addition, there are
mutations which occur more frequently in STRs (
short tandem repeats - a type of "stutter" in
the "junk DNA") that are also passed from father to son - however these mutations occur
much more frequently.  For example, it is possible, but unlikely, that a son could share only
24 of 25 marker scores with his father since a mutation could occur at any time at one of the
25 loci (e.g., DYS390 = 22 to 23 - gaining a repeat) that have been measured for the
purposes of this study.  An individual's unique pattern of scores on the 25 markers is known
as his
haplotype.  Thus individuals who are descended from a common ancestor say 200
years ago should have a 25 / 25 marker match (share the exact same haplotype), but due to
these mutational processes, it is possible that they might only share say 23 / 25.

Unfortunately it is not possible to directly measure
Adam Young's haplotype.  Considering
that he died some 215 years ago there is little likelihood that even if the skeleton was
exhumed there would be any usable nuclear DNA (including the Y chromosome).  Generally
only the much more numerous and robust mitochondrial DNA survive hundreds or
thousands of years intact.  However, we can infer the configuration of scores on the Y
chromosome of Adam if we measure enough of his descendants in the male line and average
out any mutations.  A male descended from Sgt. Daniel Young should have the same (or
nearly so) haplotype as a descendant of Pvt. Henry Young or a descendant of Lt. John
Young  since all had the same father - Adam Young.

The goal of the present project was to obtain DNA samples from sufficient males descended
from Adam Young, who have the Young surname, to be certain that we have the haplotype
of Adam.  In addition to providing evidence as to the haplotype possessed by Adam Young,
it may be possible to tell something of the
"deep ancestry" of the Young family.  If Adam's
descendants have haplogroup R1a, or I or almost any type other than R1b it is often
possible to compare the haplogroup signatures of descendants to those of individuals
residing in various countries across the world.  Even with R1b, if the haplotype is rare
enough, it may be possible to point to a country or region of origin.  Considering the clear
genealogical evidence, the Young family was residing at Dunzweiler, near the French
border, in the 1600s.  That particular point in time was one of great disruption and it could
easily be the case that the male ancestor of the Youngs (Jung) originated in France.

Haplotype Results:  At the beginning of this study it was recognized that the Y-DNA
signatures of of an unknown number of male Youngs would be necessary to provide
complete answers to the above questions.  Only two participants were required to meet the
research goals.  A
descendant of Sgt. Daniel Young (Kenneth Young) and a descendant of Lt.
John Young
(Lawrence Young) volunteered to provide DNA samples for analysis [names
included with permission].  The results are clear and unequivocal -
both men had nearly
identical signatures (matched 36 / 37)
.  They match 8 other males (12 / 12) out of 20,000 in the
database of the company (Family Tree DNA) which did the testing.  The only high resolution
match (23 / 25 or greater) was the other Young.  The only difference is that at locus 449
Kenneth = 28 and Lawrence = 29.  A one step mutation is expected in this time frame.  
Perhaps other Youngs will step forward to clarify the matter, but it is only one marker in
question so is not essential for the purposes of the present study.

When you look at the pattern of scores in Adam's descendants on the Excel page, realize
that he had precisely the same pattern (with only marker 449 being in question), and further
that all of his biological male descendants in the direct male line also had, have and will
have this configuration.

Haplogroup Results:  In order to explore the early ancestry of the Youngs (e.g., back to
Neolithic times) a SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) test was done on the Y-DNA of
Lawrence Young.  Here the search is for markers showing the descent from one male,
thousands of years ago.  All those with the same markers are descendants of this man.  
Larry tested positive for
U152 and L2 (also known as S28 and S139).  This places the Young
Y-DNA in the phylogenetic category of
R1b1b2a1b4c in the Family Tree DNA scheme of things
or R1b1b2a1a2d3 in the terminology of the International Society of Genetic Genealogists
.  Click
here for more information.  The author maintains a database for this haplogroup which can
be accessed
here.   At the bottom of this document you will find access to a Google map
showing the distribution of R-U152 (shorthand of the Young haplotype), and to a
comprehensive set of resources pertaining to this group.  Verification of this finding was
obtained by testing with 23andMe where Larry Young and Raleigh Young (descendants of
Lt. John Young via latter's son John Young Jr.) and Mike Young (descendant of Sgt. Daniel
Young via latter's son Henry Young).  All were assigned to haplogroup R1b1b2a1a2d3*.

What this means is that the Young family have a prototypic southern German profile.  The
haplogroup to date has only been found below Cologne, with the Rhine - Danube headwaters
being the hotspot, another being Switzerland and the Italian Alps as well as eastern France.  
Due to migrations circa 400 BC, this haplogroup is now spread (via migrating / maurading
Celtic warriors) in a band across Europe from Portugal to Kazakhstan.  It would appear that
the term "
Alpine Celtic" may be the best moniker for the moment.  In all likelihood the
Young ancestors were members of one of the Celtic tribes of the region, perhaps moving
north in La Tene times (e.g., circa 500 BC) to the area that came to be occupied by the
Treveri Tribe, well known to the Romans.  The author, by chance, has the same haplogroup
assignment with one additional marker (L20 / S144).  In the summer of 2008 he went on a
trip to Germany to view the Celtic sites that relate both to his own Y-DNA and that of the
Youngs.  Some of the most important Celtic sites include that of the Reinheim Princess
(close to the Young home territory), the Hochdorf Chief (north of Stuttgart), and the
massive Heuneberg settlement and burial mounds (south of Stuttgart) - all associated with
the Celtic peoples of the Hallstatt and La Tene cultures.  Detailed information about the
Celtic peoples of Europe can be seen
To view the YOUNG Y-DNA